Ruth Speaks Out

This blog is maintained by the Ruth Institute. It provides a place for our Circle of Experts to express themselves. This is where the scholars, experts, students and followers of the Ruth Institute engage in constructive dialogue about the issues surrounding the Sexual Revolution. We discuss public policy, social practices, legal doctrines and much more.


The Man Who Exposed Forced Abortion in China a Guest on The Dr. J Show

Steven Mosher, author of Bully of Asia: Why China’s Dream is the New Threat to World Order, is this week’s guest on The Dr. J Show, the interview program of The Ruth Institute.

Dr. Jennifer Roback Morse, PhD., founder and president of the Ruth Institute, said, “We’re grateful for the opportunity to bring viewers this interview with Steven Mosher, the first person to expose the horrors of forced abortion in the People’s Republic of China. Decades before the communist regime exposed the world to the coronavirus, it was committing massive human rights abuses.”

In 1980, as the first Western social scientist to study in China, Mosher witnessed the regime’s one-child policy in action. He watched in horror as women in the seventh, eighth, even ninth month of pregnancy were dragged to an operating table to have a C-section abortion performed on them.

Mosher said this shocking experience made him pro-life, and his new pro-life stance cost him his doctorate.

Morse said, “Here in microcosm, is the whole story of US relations with the People’s Republic of China. Mosher’s advisors at Stanford University valued their access to research in China, more than exposing these human rights atrocities. Time after time, Westerners give China a ‘pass,’ so they can continue doing business there. This has been going on for forty years.”


Mosher also recounts his attempts to tell the president of the National Organization for Women about the appalling coercion of the Chinese Communist Party on women. The president of NOW responded, “Well, China does have a population problem.”

Morse stated, “Again, there is the story of highly-placed advocates of the Sexual Revolution ignoring human rights abuses. The claim that they defend a ‘women’s right to choose’ is a cover story, not a real commitment.”

Mosher subsequently abandoned a career as a social scientist and became a leader in the pro-life movement. Today he’s the president of the Population Research Institute.

“My interview with Mosher shows that the Chinese Communist Party has a long history of callousness and corruption even toward its own people, well before the recent COVID-19 catastrophe,” Morse said.

Each week on the Dr. J show, Morse interviews experts on issues ranging from surrogacy and “transgenderism,” to divorce, sexual abuse, pornography and other aspects of the Sexual Revolution.

Watch Dr. Morse’s interview with Steve Mosher here.

Mosher’s book, Bully of Asia: Why China’s Dream Is the New Threat to World Order can be found here.

The Ruth Institute is a global non-profit organization leading an international interfaith coalition to defend the family and build a civilization of love. Find more information here.

To schedule an interview with Dr. Morse, contact media@ruthinstitute.org.


“Dr. Fauci, can we decide for ourselves how much risk to take?”

Dr. Jennifer Roback Morse, Founder and President of the Ruth Institute, expressed concern over the public health establishment’s back and forth attitude toward individual risk-taking. “If young people using Grinder can make their own risk-taking decisions about sex, why can’t elderly people make their own risk-taking decision about hugs?” Morse said.

Morse’s comments were in reaction to the April 15th Vanity Fair interview with Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. In regards to people using dating apps like Tinder or Grinder, Fauci said, “If you’re willing to take a risk—and you know, everybody has their own tolerance for risks—you could figure out if you want to meet somebody. And it depends on the level of the interaction that you want to have. If you’re looking for a friend, sit in a room and put a mask on, and you know, chat a bit. If you want to go a little bit more intimate, well, then that’s your choice regarding a risk.”


Morse said, “Dr. Fauci was at his scientific best when he stated that asymptomatic carriers of the Wuhan virus could infect strangers whom they meet on dating apps. But he could not bring himself to say, ‘therefore, stop using these apps. You don’t need to have sex with strangers, especially not during a global pandemic.’”

Morse noted that casual sex routinely spreads syphilis, gonorrhea and HIV. “Surely Dr. Fauci knows that having sex with someone is much more dangerous than shaking hands or hugging. Yet elderly people are dying alone, unhugged and untouched, out of fear of spreading the Wuhan virus via asymptomatic carriers.”

Morse, author of six books on marriage, family, and human sexuality, stated that social isolation is itself harmful, especially for people with health vulnerabilities. She asked, “Why can’t the family decide whether the risk is worth the benefits of hugging their loved ones, or even being in the same room with them? The nursing homes and hospices are reporting heartbreaking scenes of elderly people waving to their loved ones through the window, sometimes unable to understand why their grandchildren cannot come in and hug them. The inconsistency on the part of the public health establishment makes no sense.”

Morse speculated, “Perhaps the disparity is due to the fact that those who are called ‘sexually active’ have a lobby which will fight to protect their rights to engage in whatever sexual activity they want. Ordinary families who want to interact in a humane and civilized manner, seemingly have no lobby.”

The Ruth Institute is a global non-profit organization leading an international interfaith coalition to defend the family and build a civilization of love.

See the Vanity Fair interview here.

Find more information on The Ruth Institute here.

To schedule an interview with Dr. Morse, contact media@ruthinstitute.org.

 




Cardinal Pell’s Acquittal Contains Message for Retired Professionals: Get to Work!

This article was first published April 14, 2020, at the NCRegister.

COMMENTARY: The people who have the most to offer in combating the sexual revolution also have the most to lose from doing so.

by Jennifer Roback Morse

Respected commentator Father Raymond de Souza observed a little-known fact about the convoluted case of Australian Cardinal George Pell: “No judge who had a future to worry about sided with Cardinal Pell. Every judge whose future was secure from recriminations for judging fairly sided with the cardinal.”


One such fair judge was the lone dissenter on the lower court, Justice Mark Weinberg. Father de Souza’s observation has implications far beyond one Australian legal case. Let me come right to the point: Retired professionals, we need you back on the playing field!

Let me explain.

Obviously, the top jurists in the Australian legal system do not have “a future to worry about.” These judges on the highest court of the land are the ones who ultimately exonerated Cardinal Pell. Let’s zero in on Weinberg, who, as noted above, was the lone dissenter at that level. His 200-page dissent utterly demolished the majority opinion, which upheld Cardinal Pell’s convictions. Father de Souza pointed out something I did not previously realize: Weinberg is a 71-year-old retired judge who is called in for special cases because of his expertise.

Let’s apply this seemingly offhand observation to the broader situation of living out Catholic teaching in the modern world. The entire developed world is in the grip of an ideology that is every bit as toxic and irrational as communism or fascism. This ideology demands conformity, imposes penalties for dissent, and controls all the major institutions of society. The ideology promises to create heaven on Earth, if only we allow the ruling savior class enough power to reshape law, media, education, entertainment and, of course, the judicial system.

The ideology I’m speaking of is the one spawned by the sexual revolution. We can all have carefree, unlimited sex. No unwanted babies. No broken hearts. No loneliness. We’re told that the sex of the body is not a real constraint on anything, so we can remake our society and our bodies in any way we want. Children don’t really need anything from their natural parents, so we don’t really need any social norms requiring permanence in sexual relationships. If we just continue to reshape the institutions of society, we will eventually arrive at that wonderful world where sexual activity is sterile unless you have quirky lifestyle preferences and happen to want a baby: heaven on Earth.

The only major institution in the world holding out against this ideology is the Catholic Church. And even parts of the Church have “gone wobbly,” in Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher’s colorful phrase from a different era about a different totalitarian ideology. Cardinal Pell’s “crime” was that he actively resisted the claims of the sexual revolutionaries. The child-abuse charges were trumped up against him. There are clerics around the world who are much guiltier of much worse things who are getting far better treatment within their own countries’ legal systems and the international media than poor Cardinal Pell. Why single out him, of all people? Interesting question, no?

I’ve written before about the commonalities among the cases of Theodore McCarrick, Harvey Weinstein and Jeffrey Epstein. And I’ve written quite a lot (a whole book, in fact) about the dynamics of the sexual revolution and what keeps it chugging along, in spite of its irrationality and crimes. Long story short: Delaying childbearing is the de facto social price of getting an education and entering the professions.

Many people accomplish that delay, not by sexual restraint until marriage, but, rather, through the use of contraception and, in many cases, abortion. This fact tilts the educated and professional classes toward favoring the sexual revolution and the unfettered license it touts. The people most likely to be in positions of influence, power and wealth either think the sexual revolution is just grand, or secretly know that it isn’t but have a guilty conscience about it. In either case, an outsized percentage of people in the professions have a strong incentive to keep the sexual revolution going. People like Cardinal Pell, who dissent from the sexual revolution’s orthodoxy, disturb the consciences of many journalists and jurists.

Members of the professions who do not agree with the sexual revolution know all about the pressure to conform to its tenets. I have heard from Catholic lawyers and doctors, as well as evangelical Protestant therapists and social workers, about the difficulties of trying to do their jobs. The people who have the most to offer in combating the sexual revolution also have the most to lose from doing so.

Yet these are the very people we need to fighting for the integrity of their professions. These are people who know the fields of law or medicine or journalism. They can speak to the specific problems in the libraries and schools. They know how their profession operates. They know the important people and have connections an outsider can’t have.

This brings me back to Cardinal Pell. What if Mark Weinberg hadn’t come out of retirement to take this case? Where would Cardinal Pell be today if Weinberg had decided to check out and do the Australian equivalent of playing golf that day? Only someone who is both qualified and relatively detached from social pressure could render the type of impartial ruling that Weinberg did.

Retired doctors, nurses, teachers, attorneys: This is my plea. Find creative ways to influence your profession for good. Join or form alternative professional organizations or independent practices. No one can fire you anymore. You have nothing to lose now, and you still have a lot to offer. Get to work. We need you!

 


Ruth Inst. Applauds Appeals Court Decision to Close Abortion Clinics

Ruth Institute President Dr. Jennifer Roback Morse, Ph.D., applauded a federal appeals court decision that allows Texas to stop abortions during the coronavirus pandemic. “The move will conserve scarce medical resources,” Morse said, “and give women who were planning to have an abortion time to rethink that fatal decision.”

Both the Surgeon General and the CDC have called on health care providers to delay non-urgent and elective procedures during the pandemic. Attorneys General in Texas and Ohio have ordered abortion facilities to comply.

Planned Parenthood sued to have the orders overturned, arguing that abortions are essential and cannot be delayed.


While a lower federal court agreed and issued an injunction against the Texas order, the U.S Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals said the order was constitutional and lifted the injunction. This is the first time a federal appeals court has ruled on the matter.

Morse explained: “Since Roe v. Wade, abortion proponents have told us that a woman has a right to choose to end the life of an unborn child. But if abortion involves choice, it must be elective. By its very definition, an elective surgery is subject to choice, not something one is required to have.”

In an earlier press release, the Ruth Institute noted that while so much of the nation has closed down to prevent the spread of a deadly virus, facilities working not to save lives, but to take them, remain open.

“Being confronted by so much death should encourage us to hold life precious,” Morse said. “During the coronavirus crisis, hospitals, physicians and health care providers are struggling heroically to save lives. Isn’t it ironic that the abortion industry struggles to keep taking lives, at all costs?”

See The Ruth Institute’s earlier press release: Abortion Clinics Stay Open – Even a Pandemic Must Not Be Allowed to Interfere with the Sexual Revolution.

In a similar vein, the Ruth Institute has a petition calling for a moratorium on “sex-change” operations, which are also elective.

The Ruth Institute is a global non-profit organization, leading an international interfaith coalition to defend the family and build a civilization of love.

Jennifer Roback Morse is the author of The Sexual State: How Elite Ideologies Are Destroying Lives.

To schedule an interview with Dr. Morse, contact media@ruthinstitute.org.

 


Ruth Institute Petition Calls for Moratorium on “Sex-Change” Operations

The Ruth Institute is partnering with Life Petitions to call on governors to stop “sex-change” operations during the coronavirus crisis. This is in keeping with national efforts to halt elective surgeries and conserve medical resources. The petition, found here, has more than 4,600 signatures in just three days.

Ruth Institute President Dr. Jennifer Roback Morse, Ph.D., said: “No one will be harmed by delaying these operations. Besides conserving medical resources, it will give those planning such procedures a chance to reflect on the long-term consequences of actions they may come to regret.”


The petition also calls on governors to make it clear that talk-therapy aimed at helping gender-confused persons be at peace with their bodies does not constitute prohibited “conversion therapy.” Morse explained, “Conversion therapy bans are often so broad that therapists fear talking to gender-confused clients.”

“Removing healthy body parts may change the patient’s appearance but not his or her sex, which is biologically determined. The sex they had a birth they’ll have for their entire life, regardless of surgery and hormone treatment.”

The petition also rejects the charge that some wanting the procedure will commit suicide if they have to wait, calling the claim “highly debatable.”

Morse referred to a 2011 Swedish study, the most comprehensive of its kind, which shows that, “in reality, those who have undergone a ‘sex-change’ operation are nearly 20 times more likely to commit suicide than the general population.” (See below for link.)

“The answer to gender confusion is compassionate counseling, not facilitating a fraud,” Morse said.

See Dr. Morse’s interview with Dr. Erin Brewer, Ph.D., who describes wanting to be a boy after being molested as a child. She later became a Porn Hub star.

"Dr. Brewer's testimony provides a powerful witness to the long-term impact of sexual trauma,” Morse said. “We must address trauma with compassionate counseling, not with the amputation of healthy body parts and the prescription of unproven medications."

Reference:

Dhejne C, Lichtenstein P, Boman M, Johansson ALV, Långström N, Landén M (2011) Long-Term Follow-Up of Transsexual Persons Undergoing Sex Reassignment Surgery: Cohort Study in Sweden. PLoS ONE 6(2): e16885. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016885

 



Lay Catholic Leaders to Bishops: Restore the Sacraments

by Martina Moyski • ChurchMilitant.com • April 2, 2020

DETROIT (ChurchMilitant.com) - A growing host of Catholic leaders are recognizing the mortal danger of cutting the sacraments off from the faithful and are urging bishops to restore them immediately.

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Dr. Janet Smith

In an open letter dated April 1, moral theologian Dr. Janet Smith and other prominent Catholics — including Patrick Coffin, Matt Fradd, Abby Johnson, Philip Lawler, Dr. Monica Miller, Dr. Jennifer Roback Morse, Steven Mosher and Matt Walsh — implore the bishops of the United States to do everything they can to make the sacraments more available amid the Wuhan virus outbreak.

"The bishops, our spiritual fathers, must take active and public roles in bringing to our wounded world the sacramental graces needed to survive the COVID-19 pandemic," they say. "While safety and cooperation with civil authorities is necessary, we must do everything we can to have access to what is essential for our spiritual lives."

"It is not an exaggeration to say that the health of the world and the salvation of souls depends upon [the restoration of the sacraments] ... The sacraments are the spiritual 'personal protective equipment' of Catholics and enable us to be in the field hospital of the sick and dying," they add, alluding to Pope Francis' metaphor for the Church.

The letter, published on the "We Are An Easter People" website, puts forth nine urgent requests to the bishops:


  • To find ways that you and your priests can provide the anointing of the sick, especially to those at risk of dying. Click here for some ideas.
  • If a state or local government prohibits priests from ministering to the sick in the hospital or in their homes, make a personal and formal request of civic leaders to permit such minister with assurances that all due precautions will be taken. Urge them to recognize religious services as essential services
  • Demand that civil authorities recognize religious services as essential services
  • Demand civil authorities permit events such as offering and attending a Mass in a parking lot if they are currently prohibited
  • Do everything you can to make possible some form of a public Mass, especially the Easter liturgy, and then encourage pastors to conduct it
  • Offer the Mass yourself in public, especially the Easter liturgy
  • Do everything you can to find a safe way of distributing the Eucharist, with due precautions
  • Do everything you can to enable parish churches and shrines to remain open for prayer and adoration, with due precautions
  • Inform your flock of your efforts and the greater availability of the sacraments

Dr. Smith told Church Militant that she has not yet heard from any bishops.

But underscoring the need to be creative in searching for safe ways to negotiate the pandemic while still keeping the Faith, Dr. Smith applauded efforts like "parking lot Masses," which are possible without violating federal or state separation guidelines. She urged bishops to reach out to doctors and hygienists about safe ways to distribute and receive Holy Communion.

She also lauded day-long prayer and fasting opportunities promoted by the archdiocese of Lansing.

The moral theologian emphasized the importance of regular communication by the bishops with the faithful flocks of their dioceses to say what they are doing to continue the life of the Church, suggesting weekly videos explaining what's being done and what the faithful can then do.

Merely being dispensed from Mass is not a solution that satisfies the souls of the faithful, she pointed out.

In a press release, Dr. Smith spoke of "the sacraments as gifts of inestimable value," saying, "They open up for us the gates of Heaven and bestow upon us graces that enable us to be loving disciples of Christ our Savior."

She also reiterated the importance of the intervention of bishops in "pressing governments and hospitals to rescind policies that deny priests access to seriously sick and dying patients," adding, "This is a matter of religious liberty! We should be free to practice our religion."

"Catholics are being deprived of what is central to our Faith — the sacraments," she said summarily.

A local priest wishing to remain anonymous highlighted the importance of a response to the letter by the bishops.

He pointed to the Biblical mandate, found in all four Gospels, given to the Apostles for the administering the sacraments of the Church, saying that immediately before Our Lord's ascension into Heaven, He called the disciples around Him commanding them to "Go, therefore, and make disciples of all the nations. Baptize them in the name of the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit" (Matthew 28:19).

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"All disciples are commanded by Jesus Himself to baptize, as baptism is the foundation and first sacrament of the Church, to continue on in His person the sanctification of all peoples, at all times and in every age," he said.

The priest also directed the laity to "Pray to God the Holy Spirit, to inspire the good priests and bishops to wrest control of the Church from the operatives who have hijacked its administration," recommending this prayer: "Come, Lord Jesus, and renew the face of the earth!"

Founder and president of the Ruth Institute Dr. Jennifer Roback Morse (pictured at right), one of several project endorsers, also weighed in by corroborating the importance of being creative during this difficult time. Speaking to Church Militant, she said: "I want to encourage bishops around the world to think as creatively as possible about making the sacraments more available."

Dr. Morse added: "I want to encourage the laity as well. The only thing more disheartening than the clergy not making the sacraments available is the laity being indifferent to the sacraments being unavailable."

Dr. Morse also encourages Catholics to sign the letter, saying: "People need to sign this letter to let the bishops know that they care."


Italy, the Coronavirus Pandemic and Demographic Winter

COMMENTARY: Demographic winter is a slow-moving train wreck. It has been for some time.

by Jennifer Roback Morse, Ph.D.

This article was first published April 3, 2020, at NCRegister.com.

Heartbreaking stories have emerged from the coronavirus pandemic in Italy. Hospitals are too full. Doctors are overworked. People die alone. Coffins pile up. The Pope walks through empty Roman streets, praying alone.

The coronavirus has created these scenes. Yet, behind the scenes of the crisis is another one. Slow-moving, largely hidden, yet destructive both physically and socially, a problem people prefer to ignore. I am speaking of demographic winter: the worldwide fertility decline. This problem aggravates the coronavirus crisis.


The coronavirus is especially lethal for the elderly. The death rate (deaths per number of cases) is 15% for people over 80, 8% for people in their 70s, 3% for people in their 60s and less than 1% for people under 50. The countries with the highest number of cases and fatalities per capita are countries with a large percentage of elderly people. For instance, Italy’s fertility rate is now 1.33 children per woman, far below the replacement level of 2.1. As a result, Italy has a rapidly aging population. Almost a quarter (23%) of Italy’s population is now over 65 years of age. In 2019, the median age was 46.3, projected to rise to 51.4 by 2050. An aging population is creating and will continue to create rising costs for both pensions and health care.

But beyond the dollars and cents are the human costs. Low fertility rate means fewer young people to take care of the increasing number of older people. Even if the fear of contagion had not prevented family visits, more and more people have no young relatives to come visit them. Even without coronavirus, for example, Japan has so many childless elderly people who die alone that the culture has developed a special term: “lonely death.” People die in their apartments, alone, sometimes undiscovered for days or more, sometimes much more. The first person to whom the term was applied, evidently, was a man who was discovered three years after his death.

We are so accustomed to hearing about “overpopulation” and “The Population Bomb” that we scarcely consider the opposite problem of underpopulation. Yet the fact is that birth rates in most of the world are well below replacement rates. And the problems are becoming harder to ignore and harder to solve.

Political scientist Nicolas Eberstadt of the American Enterprise Institute stated in a depressing article entitled, Growing Old the Hard Way:

“Left unaddressed, the mounting pressures that population aging would pose on pension outlays, health care expenditures, fiscal discipline, savings levels, manpower availability, and workforce attainment could only have adverse domestic implications for productivity and economic growth in today’s affluent societies.”

These pressures have been pretty much “left unaddressed” during the 15 years since Eberstadt penned those words. Public policy around the globe still emphasizes the need to slow population growth. The problems created by population decline never seem to get the same attention.

You may reply that lower fertility is one of the costs of women’s greater participation in higher education and the professions. Women are choosing delayed and reduced fertility, because they believe they will benefit from it. That is only true up to a point. What kind of “choice” is it, when we women hear all about the benefits of delayed fertility and never hear about the costs?

Did you know that most college educated women end up with fewer children than they originally wanted?* Most people don’t know this. Yet this is the case in pretty much every rich country. The “fertility gap” is highest in Southern European countries, such as Italy and Spain, where the coronavirus just happens to be the most virulent.

There is no world overpopulation crisis. The bigger problem is that we don’t have enough people. We cannot solve this problem overnight. There is nothing we can do today to increase the number of 40 year-olds we have tomorrow. Sure, we could increase immigration. But that is neither a global, nor a long-term solution.

In fact, we know today with absolute certainty the maximum number of 40-year-olds there could possibly be in the world in April 2060. (Demography is predictable that way.) We can’t do anything about that. But we can do something about how many 40 year-olds there will be in January 2061 because we can do something about how many babies we have in January 2021.

The COVID-created enforced “social isolation” could well result in a baby boom. Some “experts” offer you a free abortion as a “solution” to your “unwanted” pregnancy. I offer a different suggestion: Have the baby. Pull yourself together to take care of that baby, even if you didn’t “plan” it. Lots and lots of people who didn’t “plan” their babies will tell you later they don’t regret having them.

We baby boomers were, frankly, idiots on this point. We thought we were so smart, putting off our pregnancies and “planning” our families. We planned ourselves right into the personal heartbreak of infertility and the social crisis of demographic winter.

Of course, we as good Christian citizens must do our best to limit the spread of the coronavirus. But we must also understand the role of demographics in making us more vulnerable to this pandemic. A nation without children has no future, no matter what diseases may emerge.

For the love of God and all mankind, be not afraid! Have the baby! With any luck, and by the grace of God, Italy and all of us, will experience a post-COVID baby boom.

 


Ruth Institute Calls for Moratorium on “Sex-Change” Operations and Clarification on “Conversion Therapy”

Dr. Jennifer Roback Morse, Ph.D., founder and president of the Ruth Institute, called on the nation’s governors to halt “gender reassignment surgery” during the coronavirus crisis.

Morse explained: “The government has called for a moratorium on non-essential procedures in order to conserve medical resources. Sex-change operations clearly fall within this category. No one will be harmed by a delay here. And it will give those considering such surgeries more time to contemplate what could be a life-altering event that they’ll later regret.”


The Ruth Institute took a similar position on abortion clinics during the coronavirus crisis, calling for a halt in elective abortions as non-essential medical procedures.

Trans activists have warned that some gender-confused will commit suicide if their operation is delayed. Morse called this argument a red herring. “A study shows that those who have undergone a ‘sex-change’ operation are nearly 20 times more likely to commit suicide than the general population.” (See below for link.)

Morse said a moratorium would help us come to terms with the nature of gender-reassignment surgery. “After the operation, patients will have the same sex they had before. These procedures change physical appearance, not DNA. Those who were born male or female will remain so till the end of their days, regardless of what they do to their bodies.”

“The answer to gender confusion is compassionate counseling, not facilitating a fraud,” Morse said. She also called on governors to lift bans on such therapy, where they exist. “Bans on conversion therapy are often so broad that therapists fear taking on gender-confused clients. Lifting such bans would enable those seeking help to receive it without therapists fearing legal consequences.”

The Ruth Institute is a global non-profit organization leading an international interfaith coalition to defend the family and build a civilization of love.  

Dr Jennifer Roback Morse is the author of The Sexual State.

To schedule an interview with Dr. Morse, contact media@ruthinstitute.org.

Reference:

Dhejne C, Lichtenstein P, Boman M, Johansson ALV, Långström N, Landén M (2011) Long-Term Follow-Up of Transsexual Persons Undergoing Sex Reassignment Surgery: Cohort Study in Sweden. PLoS ONE 6(2): e16885. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016885

 

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